How is the Message of the Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) universal when whilst he spoke Arabic and the final revelation is preserved in Arabic as well.

How is the Message of the Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) universal when whilst he spoke Arabic and the final revelation is preserved in Arabic as well.

483525_391200667626757_186737305_n1Bismillahir Rahman nir Rahim.

All praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be on the Prophet Muhammadﷺ.The Prophet Muhammadﷺ being the universal messenger and not only for the Arabs is a standard theme in the Quran. However, some Non Muslims have attempted to prove that his message is only for the Arabs and not for the whole of humanity. This claim is absurd and is without evidence as it can be seen by reading the Quran from cover to cover and by not cherry picking the Verses of the Quran to suit their evangelical and missionary needs. We can analyze this from various perspectives. Some of them are mentioned below.

Every Messenger has been sent with the Language of his People

The Fact of the Matter is that the Messenger of Allah r was an Arab messenger since the people to whom he was sent were Arabs and as Allah says in the Quran, “And we have sent no messenger but with the language of his people, that he might make (the message) clear for them.” (14:4). This clearly shows that every messenger has been sent to the people with the language of the people, or else people would have not understood the message and would have said how come a message has come  which is in a foreign tongue?

This has been confirmed to us in this verse, “And if We had made it a non-Arabic Qur’an, they would have said, “Why are its verses not explained in detail [in our language]? Is it a foreign [recitation] and an Arab [messenger]?” Say, “It is, for those who believe a guidance and cure.” And those who do not believe – in their ears is deafness, and it is upon them blindness. Those are being called from a distant place.” (41:44)

Allah is Lord of the Worlds and not only the Lord of the Arabs

Allah has never claimed in the Quran that he is Lord of only the Arabs, the constant message given in the Quran is that Allah is Lord of the Worlds. The first of the Quran itself is a proof for this, where a person is taught to say, that “All praise be to the Lord of Worlds” (1:1). Moreover, countless times in the Quran Allah has referred himself as the Lord of the heavens and the Earth.

If the Message of the Prophetﷺ was only to the Arabs, then why does Allah refer himself to as the Lord of the Worlds and not the Lord of the Arabs?

Language is just a vehicle for the Message

Allah says in the Quran, “Verily, We made it a Quran in Arabic so that you may be able to understand” (43:3). The Arabic Language is just a means to deliver the Message. It is unreasonable to expect that the message should be delivered in every language of the World. Hence, what better language than the language of the people so that the message is clearly explained to the people, and there is left no doubt about the universality of the message.

Its faulty logic to state, that the message of the Arabic Quran cannot be delivered to the Non-Arabs. Since, the Prophetﷺ himself sent various letters with Quranic Arabic, with translators,etc warning the Heraclius, Chosroes II, Negus, etc. Moreover, many Sahaba, like Salman al Farsi, Bilal , etc were Non Arabs from their lineage and no one objected for their accepting of Islam. Since, the Prophetﷺ who was an Arab, the Quran had to be in Arabic for the people to understand. This does not restrict his mission to only the Arab people, rather the Arabic Quran can be interpreted in every language so that at least the basic message can be understood. This is what has been followed since the early generations, when Islam had spread far and wide, to Persia and other countries, who were Non-Arabs.

Evidence from the Hadeeth.

The Prophet(pbuh) said, “I have been given five things which were not given to anyone else before me:

  1. Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month’s journey.
  2. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum, therefore anyone of my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due.
  3. The booty has been made Halal (lawful) for me yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me.
  4. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection).
  5. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind.

( Saheeh Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 7, Number 331)

Hence, we can gauge that the Message of the Prophetﷺ was never intended to be only for Arabs, and he was a universal messenger, although his message was sent in Arabic. This was done to the earlier messengers too. Their message was also in the language of the people; however the message was not intended to be universal. To use the language as the only criterion for judging that the message is local and not universal is incorrect. We need to see the contents of the message, i.e the Quran and the Hadeeth, which clearly state that the Message is Universal.

The Miracle of the Quran  

All the Miracles of the previous messengers have come to an end, with the end of their time. However, the Quran with its eloquence and its extra ordinary style will continue to be a Miracle till the end of time. Anyone can learn the Arabic language and comprehend its miracle, since it can be understood with a sound intellect. However, to understand the basic meaning, one need not learn the Arabic Language, and the Quran is being interpreted in various languages of the World and many people are embracing Islam just by reading the interpretations of the meanings of the Quran in their language.

The Miracle of the Quran is not only in the words but in its style, eloquence, meanings and in fact it can be said that everything about the Quran is miraculous in nature.

Historical Evidence

Historically, the message being in the Arabic Language has never been a concern; rather it has helped Islam to spread far across the world. Wherever the Message of Islam spread, the words of Islam resounded with what the Innate Fitrah, which Allah created us with. Hence, we can see that Muslims are from almost every corner of the world with almost all languages. The common Arabic language has helped them to pray together and any person travelling anywhere in the World, need to have problems in offering Salah, since everyone, wherever he might be offers Salah in Arabic. Hence, when Islam spread far and wide, especially during the time of Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), the message of Islam has been translated and delivered to those people who did not speak Arabic earlier.

Moreover, the effect that Arabic had on them was so profound, that everyone started speaking Arabic and they their original languages totally vanished. Now, most of the Arab countries, which can be seen in the Map, were not Arab before, but when Islam came to them, they adopted Arabic as their native language.

Conclusion

The Message of the Quran, is to help the individual realize his true objective and purpose in life, to Worship Allah and to attain eternal Paradise. To consider language as a constraint, especially in today’s age of technology, is incorrect, since we have all the tools available at our disposal to understand the message of Islam and to comprehend it. All languages are a blessing from Allah, as Allah says, “And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colors: verily in that are Signs for those who know”(30:22). Hence, it can be concluded by the verse of the Quran:

And we have sent You (O Muhammad ) not but as a Mercy for the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinns and All that exists). (21:107)

May Allah guide us to what is the best and all blessings be on the Prophet Muhammadr .And Allah Knows best.

Bibliography

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.call-to-monotheism.com/rebuttal_to_answering_islam_s_article__mohammed_claimed_to_be_a_warner_only_for_arabia_

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://islamqa.info/en/147329

Some Fiqh Issues..

Some Fiqh Issues..

shariah-and-fiqhQuestion 1

Value Added Tax (VAT) is a type of tax that is common all over the world. Do a comparison between VAT and Zakaah. 

 Question 2

With the advent of tooth paste and the tooth brush, do you think the miswak is still relevant? Substantiate your answer. 

 Question 3

Why should or shouldn’t  females be allowed to lead prayers at the masajids.

Bismillahir Rahman nir Rahim.

All praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be on the Prophet Muhammadr.The questions are answered below:

1229_zakah

  1. Value Added Tax is a tax which is levied by the government on the sale of goods and sometimes on services. It is a widely accepted tax in the world. It levies tax on the amount of the increase in the value of the tax at that stage of production or distribution. While, Zakah, is one of the five pillars of Islam which has been legislated by Allah. It is a compulsory act by the one who reaches the Nisaab level and it is paid on the savings of the individual. Each year 2.5 percent of the savings are given as Zakah to the poor and the needy and the other categories of the people to whom the Quran specifies.

When it comes to VAT, it is a part of the man made systems which people and governments have created. They are not prescribed by Allah. While, Zakah is divinely ordained by Allah and it is a stressed obligation in Islam. These two payments are mutually exclusive and are no way related to each other. Some people do not pay Zakah since they think that the Tax which they pay to the government itself suffices as the Zakah. However, that is an incorrect understanding and it is not permissible to merge the two different concepts.

Generally, VAT is on the value added on the goods and this form eliminates double taxation, etc. This amount goes to the government which uses this money for the general welfare of the people like building roads, healthcare, etc. While, Zakah is an obligation, which is given by Allah, and this amount does not generally go the government, but it goes to the poor and the needy. It is calculated on the savings of the individual person and not like on the sales made or on the income of the individual. Hence Zakah, since being legislated by Allah is the best way for any economy to thrive on and it does not come under the definition of a modern day tax.

If there is an Islamic State, then the soundest opinion of the scholars is that it is not permissible to levy any other tax without any specific reason, or a special circumstance like famine, war, and the money should be used legitimately. Then a question may arise that then how will an Islamic Government run? There are various legitimate sources for Income apart from levying a tax, such as Zakath, War Booty, Jizya, etc

While, for the rest of the people who are living under a Non Muslim rule, then we are obligated to follow the rules of the land which are not in contradiction to Islamic laws and one must pay all the taxes and not evade them. Allah knows Best

  1. Miswaak is a tool which is used for the cleaning of the mouth which is prescribed by Islam. Islam stresses a lot on cleanliness and purity, both spiritual as well as physical. The Prophet ﷺ said that ‘Siwaak cleanses the mouth and pleases the Lord.’[1]. Moreover he also said that “Were it not for the fact that I did not want to make things too hard for my ummah, I would have commanded them to use the siwaak at every time of prayer.”[2]

7892291428_13a1041d62_b

However, some people question the relevance of Miswaak due to the advent of toothbrushes. Some scholars say that the best type of stick to use for miswaak is the stick of the Arak Tree. However, if one is unable to find them, then he can use any other stick which is not harmful for the teeth and has no poisonous effect. Some even say that Toothbrushes can also be used if anything else is not available. This seems to be the correct view that any kind of sticks that are used for cleansing the mouth and are not harmful can be used as Miswaak.[3]

That said, there are many studies done which say that a does have a lot of benefits. Since, most toothbrushes and toothpastes are made cheaply with low quality products for the sake of competition and for making a profit, using Miswaak has been proved to be very beneficial and it can be said that is at par or more than the modern day toothbrushes.

Hence, Islam is a religion which will stand the test of time and any part of it will never be irrelevant for any day and age. Same can be said of the Miswaak and Allah knows best.

  1. This issue has been very controversial since a long time. There have been instances in the west were a woman haswomens-mosque led a congregation of males and females. However, when the evidence are looked upon it is clear that a woman is not allowed to lead men in the Salah. In the Quran Allah says that “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means”[4]. Moreover, the prophet hood and the leadership is reserved only to the men and not to the women.

Women are not allowed to be leaders and there were no women prophets, as the Prophet ﷺ said “No people will ever succeed who appoint a woman as their leader.”[5] . Hence, if the Women are not allowed to be leaders in a generic sense, then how can a woman lead the Salah in the Masajids? Moreover, if the Imam made a mistake, etc.  then the women are not even allowed to speak, in fear of any provocation to the other males and they are supposed to clap, then how would a woman recite and deliver a sermon?

The Prophet ﷺ also said that the best rows for the women are the last ones and the worst ones are the front ones. [6] As far as women leading only women then there are evidences from the Sunnah that it is allowed and many women like Aisha and Umm Salamah(May Allah be pleased with them) lead women in prayer.

Moreover, a women leading men also leads to incitement and a male may not be able to control his gaze and he will lose the Khushoo’ in Salah. Hence It is impermissible and a great fitnah to allow women lead men in Salah and Allah knows best.

Bibliography

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://islamqa.info/en/130920

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://islamqa.info/en/2577

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://islamqa.info/en/115282

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/articles/139420/miswaak-the-natural-toothbrush

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://islamqa.info/en/39188

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://islamqa.info/en/14247

[1] Reported by  al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh, 2/274

[2] Reported by al-Bukhaari, 2/299 and Muslim, 1/151

[3] http://islamqa.info/en/2577

[4] [al-Nisa’ 4:34]

[5] al-Bukhaari (4425)

[6] Muslim (440)

Belief in Qadaa Wal Qadr

Belief in Qadaa Wal Qadr

Question: Believing in Qadar (destiny) is a fundamental pillar of Iman. How would you respond to someone who says, “If Allah truly decrees things before He creates them, then:

a) why does He decree human suffering?”

b) how can a person be called to account for his actions?”

destiny

Answer:

Bismillahir Rahman nir Rahim.

All praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be on the Prophet Muhammadr.Belief in Qadr is an important part of the Islamic Creed. The Prophetr, according to the Hadeeth of Gabriel said that the 6th Pillar of Eeman is Belief in Qadr. However there are some questions and doubts which a person can get when he is asked to believe in Qadr. The Islamic Faith , Alhamdulillah, gives the answer to these questions so that the heart of a Muslim is put to rest with belief and contentment. A couple of these questions are dealt below:

  1. a) One question which comes into the mind of both Muslim and Non Muslims is that, Why does Allah decree human suffering? We believe that Allah is the Most Merciful as well as the Most Just. Moreover, he is the most knowing of all things and his actions are determined according to his Divine Wisdom. However, before we delve further, we need to understand what exactly is suffering or evil per se.

Allah does not do any act which is completely evil, we might perceive that act as evil, although there might be several benefits from it which we may not understand. For instance, a father takes his son to a doctor to get him medicated and undergo a heart operation. Although the Father loves his Son, he will for the greater good, allow his son, to be operated on. However, for a person who does not know how medical science operates, it might seem an evil thing, to open up someone’s chest and take his heart out, is painful and apparently evil to the ignorant person. Similarly, things which might be apparently evil and the sufferings of Human beings have wisdom behind it.

Secondly, Allah says in the Quran “And whatever misfortune befalls you, it because of what your own hands have earned. And he pardons much” (42:30). So a part of belief of a Muslim is that all sufferings, evils, pain, hunger, tragic are because of his sins. Many a times, when a person is suffering, he repents and he becomes closer to Allah. They start praying, worshipping him and become devout worshippers of Allah after a calamity. It is like a wakeup call, before it’s too late.

Hence we can gauge that Human suffering is required for A person’s spiritual development. However, we do not pray that we are tested or made to suffer. We ask refuge from Allah from being tested. Although, when a calamity strikes us we patiently forbear, and try to repent, ask forgiveness and do good deeds As Allah says “Or do you think that you shall enter the Garden (of bliss) without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? they encountered suffering and adversity, and were so shaken in spirit that even the Messenger and those of faith who were with him cried: “When (will come) the help of Allah.” Ah! Verily, the help of Allah is (always) near!” (2:214). To sum up, some of the following benefits can be summarized:

  1. Sufferings expiate sins too.
  2. Sufferings prove the weakness of human beings and the Allah being the

All Powerful.

  1. Sufferings can be a blessing in disguise.
  2. Sufferings can be for elevating someone’s rank.
  3. For Warning someone as an admonition

And Allah knows best.

  1. b) The second question is as to why a person can be called to account for his actions, when Allah has decreed it. Qadr is not an evidence for people to justify sin. Allah does not force anyone to do anything. He has shown man the right way and the wrong way and human beings are responsible for their deeds as to what choice they take.

Moreover, Allah has brought down the commandments for doing good things and prohibiting the bad things. If people were not accountable for their deeds, then there was no point in rewarding them or punishing them, since they are forced to do these things as per Allah’s decree. However, this is not true and is not acceptable.

Everyone knows the difference between a forced act and an act which is done out of free will. We all choose things in our daily life. When it comes to the world, we do not sit at home and say if Allah had decreed we would get our sustenance. We go out, and do hard work and earn money. However, when it comes to deeds, we use Qadr to cop out and say that Allah has decreed for us, and we will do good, if he had decreed it. We do not know as to what is decreed for us, and we choose our actions.

The writing down of the deeds of the human are not an imposition, rather they just show the Infinite knowledge of Allah. Hence we see that a human is accountable for his deeds and he cannot use Qadr to justify sins and evils. As Ibn Taimiyah says “No one has the right to make excuses for sin by referring to al-qadar, according to the consensus of the Muslims and the followers of other religions, and all those who are wise. If this were acceptable, then anyone could do whatever crosses his mind of murder, seizing people’s wealth and any kind of spreading mischief in the land, and quote al-qadar as his excuse. If a person who quotes al-qadar as an excuse were attacked by another person who also quoted al-qadar as an excuse for that, he would not accept that, and thus he would contradict himself, which in itself is proof that that this logic is false. So using al-qadar as an excuse is cleared flawed, as is obvious to anyone who has any common sense.”( Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 8/179.( And Allah knows best.

Bibliography

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.islamicislamic.com/fate_or_qadr.htm

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://muslimmatters.org/2013/05/15/why-we-are-tested-the-psychology-of-suffering-misfortune-part-1/

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://islamqa.info/en/49039

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://islamqa.info/en/2850

al Hakamee, H. i. The Chapter on Qadr. (D. B. Philips, Ed.)

Maqdisee, I. Q. The Radiance of Faith. (D. B. Philips, Ed.)

The Etiquettes of Seeking Knowledge from the Life of Imam Malik (May Allah have Mercy on him).

The Etiquettes of Seeking Knowledge from the Life of Imam Malik (May Allah have Mercy on him).

All praise is for Allaah, Lord of all the Worlds, who ordered us to follow His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and to call to His Way, and may Allaah send praises and blessings of peace upon our Prophet Muhammad (‎صلى الله عليه وسلم), and upon his family, his Companions, and those who truly follow them until the Day of Judgment.

Allah says in the Quran: Say, “Are equal those who know and those who (do) not know?” Only will take heed those of understanding.(39:9). The seeking of knowledge has been greatly stressed in our religion and it is obligatory on every Muslim to seek knowledge.

Imam Malik ( May Allah have mercy on him) is one of the greatest scholars of Islam. He is one of the Scholars who strived to attain the truth and stayed steadfast to it. A Seeker of Knowledge can learn a lot of etiquettes of seeking knowledge from his life.

Imam Malik was born in the Year 711 CE according to the most correct opinion[1]. His Great Grandfather Abu ‘Amir had accepted Islam and had migrated to Medina. This helped Imam Malik to live and die in one of the best lands and he sought his knowledge in Madina itself. He never travelled to seek knowledge due to his birth in the Treasure of Knowledge.

His Early Struggles in Seeking Knowledge

He started on seeking knowledge very early in his life. In his early days, his father had given a problem and he was unable to answer it, while his elder brother answered it. This really struck Imam Malik and he started to seek knowledge seriously. His mother also had a great role in inspiring him. She at once dressed Imam Malik and sent him to one of the scholars to learn only the etiquettes and manners of seeking knowledge. She asked him to observe the scholars before actually starting to take the knowledge[2].

The importance of etiquettes and manners can be seen from the above example. Nowadays, people especially the students of knowledge are too keen and enthusiastic in seeking knowledge, however before they actually start to take the knowledge, they forget to learn the etiquettes and the mannerisms of seeking knowledge.

Imam Malik also had memorized the Qura’n at an early age. It is highly beneficial for a child to start early in his seeking of knowledge. The Parents should imbibe the passion and zeal for knowledge in their children at a young age itself. If the Qura’n has been memorized at an early age, the seeking of knowledge will be more fruitful and beneficial.

His Choice of Local Scholars

There were many scholars under whom he could have studied and gained knowledge from. However, he gave preference to local scholars and did not travel to attain knowledge. Although, it is highly beneficial for a student of knowledge to travel and seek it, however, when he has responsibilities it is more better for him to seek the knowledge from the scholars around him, instead of leaving his home and forsaking the responsibilities.

His Perseverance

Imam Malik studied under various scholars and he would always persevere in seeking knowledge. Ibn Hurmuz was one of his teachers. He would very often go to his house and seek knowledge from him. He was a scholar who generally did not like to take students when his classes are over. However, Imam Malik used to go his home and learn beneficial knowledge of Islam. He even went to his teacher’s home on the day of Eid. His respect towards the value of time and his patience in seeking knowledge is noteworthy. [3]

A student of knowledge should also be patient and he should persevere in his quest of knowledge. He should not be lax in his attitude and should not have any hobbies which lead to his wastage of time.

His Steadfastness to the Truth

There are always trials and pitfalls in the life of a Taalibul Ilm. Imam Malik always was steadfast to the truth. He never gave into the whims and fancies of the rulers and was not a “Scholar for Dollars”. He was courageous and was prepared to face the consequences. It can be seen from an instance from his life. When the Governor of Madina demanded and forced people to give the allegiance Khalifa Al Mansour, by stating that one who would break the allegiance will automatically be divorced from his wives, then Imam Malik stood firm and gave a verdict that divorce under duress is not a valid divorce. Due to his steadfastness, he was publicly flogged and punished.

A student of knowledge should also be steadfast to the truth and not change his opinions based on his desires or under the force of others. He should wisdom and deal with the situation appropriately.

His Respect to Religious Verdicts

He always performed ablution and was always in a state of purity before he gave any religious verdict. [4] He clothed very well and presented himself to public and his students in a very presentable way.

Imam Malik was also reluctant to give any religious verdict. If he did not know any ruling, he would frankly say that he did not know.  A student of knowledge should not try to play smart to questions he doesn’t know. He should be honest and trustworthy and declare his ignorance when he doesn’t have any knowledge on any issue.

His Self Dependency

Imam Malik was self dependant when it came to earning money and maintaining a living. He used to have a business of textile partnering with his brother , who was also a scholar. He did not depend on others to meet his financial needs.

A student of knowledge should also try to be self dependant and have a source of income so that he can take care of himself and his family. He should not become a burden on others to take care of his needs and should work out a way in which he can meet the ends of his means.

Conclusion

The above are some of the etiquettes of knowledge from the Life of Imam Malik. A student of knowledge should read, understand and get inspired from the life of the righteous scholars and should try to implement all the etiquettes of knowledge.

We Pray to Allah(swt) that he grants us success in this world and the next.

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malik_ibn_Anas

[2]http://www.haqislam.org/imam-malik/

[3] Early on during his search for knowledge his master Ibn Hurmuz asked his housemaid to look out as to who was at the door. She replied, “It is the blond boy Malik.” He was sitting at the door on a padding of folded cloth to escape the coldness of the stone (http://islamicencyclopedia.org/public/index/topicDetail/id/450)

[4] Ismael ibn abi Uwaiss said, “I asked my uncle Imam Malik – about something. He had me sit, made ablution, then said, ‘Laa hawla wala quwata illa billah.’ He did not give any fatwa without saying it first.” (http://www.haqislam.org/imam-malik/)

Differences between Fiqh of Hijaz and Fiqh of Iraq – An Analysis

Differences between Fiqh of Hijaz and Fiqh of Iraq – An Analysis

Differences between the Fiqh of Hijaz and Fiqh of Iraq.

Islam, the one true religion, spread rapidly and it had the largest Islamic Empire ever. People embraced Islam in large numbers. The Fiqh also developed and it was basically branched into two: The Fiqh of Hijaz and the Fiqh of Iraq. Communication gap and huge travelling distances made it difficult for people to consolidate the fiqh and unite the stances on fiqh. The scholars too were dispersed and Ijma’ of the scholars was difficult to attain.

Hijaz, the land to where the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had been sent i.e Makkah and Madina. While, Iraq was where Islam had spread later on and Kufah became one of the major centers of Islamic Learning. Since, the foundation itself there were many differences in the Fiqh of Hijaz and Iraq.

In Hijaz, the scholars were known as Ahl Hadeeth. This was due to the fact that they did not tend to delve in hypothetical problems and they based it on the Hadeeth. They were reluctant to use excessive reasoning and their opinions.

While, another group of Scholars, who were in Iraq were called the Ahl Rai. They felt that there are identifiable reasons for the revelation of laws. They used a lot of their powers of reasoning to deduce the laws and they delved into more of hypothetical issues which have not occurred yet. They wanted to prepare for the future, hence they tried to imagine all sorts of problems and issues which might arise and worked to solve those issues.

The Ahl Rai or the Scholars of Iraq,  try to apply the spirit of the law while the Ahl hadeeth look into the strengths of evidences before giving a ruling. Both of the schools generally agree to few sources of law such as Qur’an, Sunnah, Ijma and Qiyas.

The Scholars of Ahl Rai give more precedence to their opinion and they have set up general principles and rules through which they deduce rules. If there is any hadeeth contradicting their general principles, they prefer rejecting this hadeeth. They were known as the “What iffers”. This was due the reason that, they started any discussion by using the phrase, “What if it were like this?” etc.  While, in the fiqh of Hijaz, the scholars are more strict in applying the evidences.  The Center of Fiqh of Hijaz was Medina. Imam Malik and various other scholars were from this Fiqh.

There were many reasons for differences among the Fiqh of Hijaz and the Fiqh of Iraq. One of the reason is due to the different approaches of both the scholars. There was a lot of turbulence in the area of the Iraq , hence it lead to lot of fabrication of hadeeth and stories. While, in the Hijaz, the area was more peaceful and free from the political tyrannies. Almost most of the deviant sects started in Iraq and the scholars had to develop strict conditions for acceptance of hadiths. Hence most of the time, they ended up rejecting authentic hadeeth.

Greek Logic also known as Ilmul Kalam, also had started taking root in the Islamic study and more preference was being given to Logic over divine revealed laws. Imam Abu Haneefa is said to be among the Ahl Rai.

However, the intention of both the types of Fiqh was clear. Both of them wanted to follow Islamic Law as was revealed. However, due to various reasons as stated above , the Fiqh became more and more different from each other.

Hence it can be understood that the Fiqh of Iraq and the Fiqh of Hijaz were both different approaches to Fiqh and a scholar must try to seek a balance between them.

And Allah Knows best.

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركات

The Green Dome of the Masjid Un Nabawi

The Green Dome of the Masjid Un Nabawi

Bismillahir Rahman nir Rahim.

All praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be on the Prophet Muhammad (‎صلى الله عليه وسلم).

A year ago or so , there was a media outbreak with the news that the Green Dome above the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was supposedly to be destroyed and the grave of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم relocated.  However, the media, like always, when it comes to Islam, did not have sufficient proof and they just fueled the fire of dissension among Muslims. The Green Dome has now erroneously become a part of Islam and many Muslims all over the world revere it. It is not surprising to see in many parts of the world, people writing poems and songs dedicated to the Green Dome and Masjid un Nabawi. Hence, there was a strong reaction to the alleged destruction of the dome and relocation of the grave.

Looking back historically, after the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم death, there was a dispute among the Sahaba as to where the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم is to be buried. Then Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) said that he had heard from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم  that “A prophet is buried where he dies”. Hence a grave was dug in the house of Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) and the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلمwas buried there.

There was no dome built above the sacred chamber and only a waist high enclosure of brick was constructed to distinguish the location of the chamber from the rest of Masjid’s roof [1].

A Dome above the sacred chamber was built in 678 A.H. It was built by Sultan Al Mansoor Qalawoon. He was the one, who inspite of the scholars criticizing him for the construction, did so, being ignorant of the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلمcommand of not constructing any domes or buildings on the graves.[2] The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم also said in his dying moments that, “The curse of Allah falls upon the Jews and Christians for they have made their Prophets’صلى الله عليه وسلم tombs places of worship.” [3] However, the Sultan disregarded this and he went on with the construction with the Dome. This is a classic example of the state prevailing over the Shari’ah of Islam.

The Green Dome was not always green but it changed many colours. First it was of the colour of the wood but then later on it turned to white, blue, and then green. It was in 1253 AH , that Sultan Abd’al Hameed  was the one who painted it green.

The Scholars have always criticized the building of the dome and the coloring of it, such as Al San’aani in Ta-theer al –I’tiqaad, etc. In another hadeeth of Abu’l-Hayaaj al-Asadi who said: ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allaah be pleased with him) said to me: Shall I not send you on the same mission as the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent me? Do not leave any image without erasing it or any high grave without levelling it.[4]

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم also said “Lo! Beware those who were before you used to take the graves of their prophets as places of worship. Beware, never take graves for mosques. I forbid you in doing so.”[5] Hence, it can be clearly noticed, that Islam condemns the act of construction of domes and buildings over the graves.

As stated earlier, the Prophets صلى الله عليه وسلم are buried where they died. Hence, our beloved Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم died in the house of Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) and he was buried there. The room of Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) was not included in the time of the Prophet in the Masjid but was separate from it and neither was it included during the time of the Righteous Caliphs.

The Sacred Chamber of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was included during the time of Sultan Walid ibn Abdul Malik. He, as is usual with all the rulers, went against the scholars of that time and included the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم grave in the Masjid.

This argument is generally used by the Sufis and the grave worshippers, who claim that since the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم grave is included in the Masjid un Nabawi, it is therefore allowed to build Masaajids over the graves of the saintly people, the awliyaa and also to bury people in the Masjid. However this is false argument and it has no basis to it. This goes against the saheeh hadeeth and it opens the door to Shirk which is the gravest sin ever.

The fact that the dome and the Grave is included in the masjid since centuries, does not become a proof to act according to it and one must follow the Qura’n and the hadeeth.

As Allah says in the Qura’an :

ۚ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا

(Take what the Messenger Gives You and Abstain from what he Forbids you)[6]

In another narration of Jaabir (May Allaah be pleased with him), The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade plastering over graves, or sitting on them or building over them.[7]

Therefore by looking at the narrations of the hadeeth above, it should be very clear in the mind of an objective person, that Islam has come to remove all sorts of shirk from this planet and it has also closed all doors which lead to shirk. Constructing a Masjid above the graves, venerating the graves, building mausoleums over them are all acts which are prohibited in Islam and one must avoid indulging in such acts.

As far as, the Green dome is concerned, the authorities should act wisely and the dome should be removed. However, this might cause a huge fitnah and dissension among the ranks of Muslims. Hence the ruler should do it whenever he sees is the right time and the dome should be removed and the grave of the Prophet  should be separated from the Masjid un Nabawy.

We ask Allah to grant us understanding of the Deen and to make us successful in this life and the hereafter.

[1] Fusool min Tareekh al-Madeenah al-Munawwarah by ‘Ali Haafiz (p. 127, 128).

[2] The Prophet  said: “Those people, when a righteous member of their group or a pious slave (of Allah swt ) dies, they build a mosque over his grave and make images therein; by so doing, they combine two evils: (i) The evil of the graves and (ii) the evil of images.”( Al Bukhari )

[3] [Sahih al-Bukhari, 1/62; Muwatta’ Imam Malik, p. 360]

[4]Sahih Muslim

[5] Sahih Muslim

[6] Surah Al Hashr (59:7)

[7] Sahih Muslim